· Mountains have high elevation and deformed rock structures due to the great forces that occur when mountains are forming.
· Plateaus have medium to high elevation.
· Plains are low in elevation and usually have horizontal rock layers.
· The uplifting process is constructive and includes natural occurrences such as: folding and faulting, earthquakes, volcanoes.
· This leads to erosion, which is part of the forces of deconstruction.
Climate also plays a large role in the formation of landscapes. Depending on location:
· areas that are dry (arid) have very little vegetation present with large canyons.
· humid areas will get moderate to high amounts of precipitation. ŕlarge amounts of vegetation and well-defined soil profiles. Humid areas are also known for their rounded hills.
Bedrock effects how the landscape looks according to its resistance to weathering and erosion. Stream drainage patterns are influenced by the rock beneath them. There are 4 main types of stream drainage patterns. They are known as DART: Dendritic, Annular, Radial, and Trellis:
Compare these two maps to identify geology and landscapes.
There are several important rules to remember when reading a topographic map:
· Close line =Steep Slope
· Contour lines bend upstream when crossing a river
· Highest possible elevation of a hill
are shown by small marks
(see handout “Identify a Profile”)
Adapted from: Regents Exam Prep Center http://regentsprep.org/Regents/earthsci/earthsci.cfm